LDI Fixed Income

Customized solution focused on asset/liability risk management


We believe that the primary risk in a defined benefit plan is the risk of underperforming the liabilities, not just the chance of having negative returns on assets. An ideal zero-risk portfolio is, in our view, a portfolio of Treasury bonds that is perfectly cash-matched to a plan’s liabilities. In our opinion, liability matching (not necessarily with all Treasuries) should be the neutral position for defined benefit plans.

The appropriate benchmark should reflect the duration and convexity of the liabilities. In many cases, we use a market benchmark that has a similar duration to the liabilities. In other cases, we construct a custom benchmark that looks very much like the liabilities. We also consider the degree of diversification versus equities (assuming the plan is not all fixed income). Generally speaking, the higher the quality of the benchmark, the greater the negative correlation of returns with equity returns, at least in the times when equities are doing poorly – and long high quality bond returns have been negatively correlated with equities surprisingly often.

We strongly believe that alpha transfer or duration completion strategies based upon adding duration to core portfolios via futures or swaps are not the best ways to structure long duration portfolios for the following reasons:

  • The base index may not always have the right duration or convexity characteristics.
  • An overlay strategy sometimes can add costs and perhaps negative convexity or a yield curve bet.
  • While the universe of long securities is obviously smaller than the overall market, nothing precludes long benchmarked managers from using shorter securities when they are attractive. Futures and swaps can be used at that time to extend duration, but in our view shouldn’t be part of the strategy all the time.

A benchmark customized to the liabilities (which we have created for several clients) consists of the actual liability payments viewed as a series of zero coupon Treasury bonds that precisely match the cashflows of the liability schedule. To that sequence of yields one can add a suitable spread, e.g., the OAS of the Bloomberg Barclays US Long Government/Credit Bond Index, and price that portfolio of zeroes each month at the Treasury rate plus the spread. Then one can calculate monthly returns and link them to calculate quarterly and annual benchmark returns. The bond portfolio returns could then be measured against this benchmark – a benchmark that precisely matches the liabilities, not only just in modified duration and convexity, but also in partial (key-rate) durations too.

Key Characteristics

  • Liability Driven Investment (LDI) accounts are actively managed long duration accounts that have similar durations to their pension liabilities and are measured against their liability streams
  • LDI accounts are managed precisely against their liabilities using a custom liability based benchmark calculated by discounting the liability schedule at the Treasury spot rates plus the OAS of a long market benchmark
  • The durations of our LDI accounts have typically ranged from 8 to 26 years

Capital at Risk: Please remember that there are inherent risks involved with investing in the markets, and your investments may be worth more or less than your initial investment upon redemption. There is no guarantee that the investment managers’ objectives will be achieved. Professional money management is not suitable for all investors.

Investment Team

Seven portfolio managers are responsible for managing long liability-based fixed income accounts. We designate a lead portfolio manager and a back-up for each account. The lead manager is responsible for coordinating and implementing the team’s decisions for the individual accounts. The lead is also the key contact person for the client.


Meet the Team

This website is intended for Institutional and Professional Investors only.

Please remember that there are inherent risks involved with investing in the markets, and your investments may be worth more or less than your initial investment upon redemption. There is no guarantee that the investment managers’ objectives will be achieved. Professional money management is not suitable for all investors.

Additional considerations:
This web site is not intended as an offer or solicitation with respect to the purchase or sale of any security or other financial instrument or any investment management services.The does not constitute investment advice and should not be used as the basis for any investment decision. There is no assurance that the strategy objectives as discussed will be met. Further, there is no assurance that any strategies, methods, sectors, or any investment programs herein were or will prove to be profitable, or that any investment recommendations or decisions we make in the future will be profitable for any investor or client.These materials do not purport to provide any legal, tax or accounting advice.

The risks associated with investing include but are not limited to: derivative securities, which may carry market, credit, and liquidity risks; short sales, which involve costs and the risk of potentially unlimited losses; leveraging, which may magnify losses; high yield (“junk”) bonds, which are subject to greater market risks; small/mid cap stocks which may be subject to more erratic market movements than large cap stocks; foreign securities, which are subject to currency fluctuation and political uncertainty; real estate, which poses certain risks related to overall and specific economic conditions as well as risks related to individual property, credit and interest-rate fluctuations; and mortgage-backed securities, which are subject to prepayment and extension risks.

Thematic and concentrated portfolios may not be suitable for all investors. Such portfolios are non-diversified, so a loss resulting from a particular security will have greater impact on the portfolio’s return. Fixed income investments are subject to interest rate risk, and their value will decline as interest rates rise.

Your investment objectives, risk tolerance, and liquidity needs must be reviewed before suitable programs can be recommended. Asset allocation and diversification strategies do not assure a profit or protect against loss in declining markets. Investors should consult with their attorney, accountant, and/or tax professional for advice concerning their particular situation.

In the UK: The information contained herein is provided by PGIM, Inc., the principal asset management business of Prudential Financial, Inc. (PFI), Both Jennison, and PGIM are U.S. SEC registered investment advisers. Jennison is a wholly-owned subsidiary of PGIM, which is the principal asset management business of PFI, a company incorporated and with its principal place of business in the United States. PFI is not affiliated in any manner with Prudential plc, a company incorporated in the United Kingdom.

PGIM Limited registered office: Grand Buildings, 1-3 Strand, Trafalgar Square, London, WC2N 5HR is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority of the United Kingdom (registration number 193418) and duly passported in various jurisdictions in the EEA. These materials are issued to persons who are professional clients or eligible counterparties for the purposes of the Financial Conduct Authority’s Conduct of Business Sourcebook.

In certain countries in Asia, information is presented by PGIM Singapore, a Singapore investment manager registered with and licensed by the Monetary Authority of Singapore.

In Japan, information is presented by PIMJ, registered investment adviser with the Japanese Financial Services Agency.

In South Korea, information is presented by PGIM, Inc., which is licensed to provide discretionary investment management services directly to South Korean investors.

In Hong Kong, information is presented by representatives of PGIM (Hong Kong) Limited, a regulated entity with the Securities and Futures Commission in Hong Kong to professional investors as defined in Part 1 of Schedule 1 of the Securities and Futures Ordinance.